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DMP Style Guidelines

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Use this section as a reference for information specific to DMP such as DMP trademarks, common industry terms, distinctive features, etc.

Universal Grammar & Writing Rules

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Use this section as a reference for basic grammar and mechanics such as punctuation, capitalization, commonly misspelled words, etc.

DMP Style Guidelines

Distinctive Features Glossary


Distinctive Features

For residential applications, the homeowner can press one button to select each of three separate arming options. They can select Home to arm the perimeter of the home but allow for movement within the house. Select Sleep to arm the perimeter and only specified areas inside their home, leaving sensors near bedrooms disarmed. Selecting Away fully arms all elements of the system.

In business applications, system users can quickly select All to completely arm the system as they leave the facility for the day. They also have the option to select Perimeter, arming all exterior sensors at doors and windows, but disarming all interior sensors so employees can move freely around the facility.

This patented DMP feature ensures that the system still works even if the panel is destroyed — it’s a proactive safeguard against a burglar’s fast tactic to disable the security system before it can send an emergency signal. When an exit zone (usually a door) is opened, the panel sends a check in directly to the receiver at the monitoring center. If the alarm message is not disarmed in the designated delay timeframe, the trouble signal is sent directly to the monitoring center. There are no intermediary servers or network operation centers, and no retransmission or reinterpretation of the information over the Internet. This ensures faster response and eliminates concerns about signals not being properly relayed or intermediate communication links failing.

DMP has one of the only graphic touchscreen keypads that has a unique interface with the user’s alarm system. Users can see the current status of their systems, an animated weather forecast, and can set any Z-Wave products, all from their keypad.

In addition, every DMP graphic touchscreen keypad has a built-in proximity reader behind the LED light, so there’s no need for a separate proximity reader.

This distinctive feature allows you to turn off the siren after entering your code while leaving the alarm setting in active detection.

Imagine you’re asleep — and all of a sudden, you’re awakened by your alarm siren blaring. The siren is sounding at 110 decimals, and you can’t hear what’s going on, so you enter your code to silence the siren. With most other security systems, you’ve just disarmed your system before you’re sure there is or isn’t a real alarm situation. No message is being sent to the monitoring center, and no one is coming to help.

But your DMP system is different. When a DMP system goes into alarm, the authorities are not immediately notified until the alarm situation is confirmed in order to prevent false alarms. While entering your code silences the alarm like other systems, DMP’s alarm is still in active detection mode, in case there is an intruder. At this point, the question “Is this a false alarm?” pops up on your keypad. Now that it’s quiet, you have a chance to determine if there is an intruder breaking in. If there’s no real alarm situation, you’d select “Yes” on your keypad. If it is a real alarm situation, you’d just need to select “No” to notify your monitoring center and dispatch the authorities. Also, because your alarm is still armed, the siren will sound again if an intruder enters through a window or opens a door, tripping a motion detector or sensor.

Among DMP distinctives, this certainly is a benefit to customers, who receive quicker response time from the authorities. Isn’t that the reason they purchased the alarm system in the first place!


Because DMP’s graphic touchscreen keypad has a built-in prox reader, you can easily arm and disarm a system without having to remember the code. This also makes it great for anyone else who may need to arm and disarm your system.

Let’s say your house cleaner needs security access into your home while you and your wife are away at work. Instead of memorizing your code, your house cleaner may choose to write it down in a book next to your address. But what if someone was to get ahold of that notebook? They would have your address and your alarm code! Because DMP keypads have a built-in proximity reader, your house cleaner doesn’t need to know your code — simply provide a prox patch or card, which has your code embedded in it.

With a prox reader, all your house cleaner has to do is swipe the patch or card over the LED light on your keypad to arm and disarm the system.


DMP has created a keypad view that warns those entering a premises that the system had gone into alarm at some point during the day and has not ben disarmed yet. This feature is great for warning employees or children who are not directly notified through the app or from a monitoring center when alarms have occurred. The tone and color of the keypad warns them not to enter the premises which keeps them from danger. Red Keypad is unique to DMP; no other alarm system gives you this kind of visual warning.

DMP has a special branch of service called SecureCom Wireless that supports all of our cellular communication between panels and monitoring centers. Having our own cellular service allows our systems to be up and running quickly by activating accounts through Cloud-based software. By pairing Cloud services with hardware, DMP and SecureCom Wireless have the most powerful web-based platform in the industry. The SecureCom Dealer Admin site allows our dealers to control settings to their customers systems in one online application. This allows them to adjust settings from anywhere, not just from the monitoring centers.

DMP’s Virtual Keypad app and browser allow users to interface with their home and business security systems through their phones or computers. Our app is one of the fastest security system apps on the market and works only with DMP systems.

Users can:

  • adjust user codes
  • create favorites to control when and what things happen with their systems
  • create rooms where video feeds and favorites are shown together
  • adjust a thermostat connected to their systems
  • control door locks
  • view video clips
  • review history
  • adjust settings, such as when to receive notifications

Imagine your son is away at college, but he comes home a day early — not only did he forget to tell you, but he also forgot the code to your security system. He opens the door and sets off the alarm. Because you have cameras as a part of your alarm system, you will receive a notification to your Virtual Keypad app indicating the front door is in alarm. Tapping the notification will open and stream live video from all of your cameras. This gives you the opportunity to let the monitoring center know it’s a false alarm, right from the app. No action needs to be taken. Otherwise, without video verification, if the monitoring center doesn’t recognize your son, they would likely dispatch a police officer.

Video verification is built into the DMP Virtual Keypad app. This feature eliminates the guessing factor. You can inform the monitoring center within seconds whether it’s a real or false alarm happening at your home.

DMP’s wireless key fob confirms when the system has been armed or disarmed. This is done through DMP Two-Way Wireless communication.

When you press a DMP wireless key fob, it sends a signal to the alarm panel, and when the alarm panel arms, the system sends a signal back to the key fob by turning the LED light red to indicate the system is armed. If it does not light up, the system is not armed. If you press the bottom button, it will disarm the system, and the panel will send a signal back to the key fob, and the light will turn green. You can have peace of mind knowing your system is armed. In addition, DMP Two-Way Wireless products can be placed up to 1,200 feet from the receiver.

Most alarm systems don’t have this feature. With most key fobs, you’ll see a light turn yellow when you push the key fob button, but that basically tells you the battery is working, and it transmitted the signal, but it doesn’t confirm if you’ve armed or disarmed your system.

DMP’s wireless pendant can be worn on the wrist or around the neck and is waterproof. It provides users with a simple, one-button alert system that works with DMP systems. Individuals living alone can now have the peace of mind that comes from knowing they can instantly summon help in the event of a fall or other emergency.

The Personal Pendant can be programmed as a wireless panic, supervisory or any other type of zone, increasing the number of pendants that can be used per panel as well as applications. The status LED provides visual confirmation that the pendant transmitted an alert message and it was received by the panel. The confirmation signal continues to blink for five minutes. When the button is pressed, the Status LED blinks once and then once every second for five minutes to confirm a message was sent.


Glossary

“Class A” Zone (Style D) – a circuit extending from and returning to a fire alarm control device or transmitter to which alarm actuating device normally open contacts are connected for alarm signal initiation. See “B” zone.

Abort – an authorized system user manually disarms the panel during the time after a burglary alarm occurred and before the panel’s Bell Cutoff timer expires. Used mainly when the zone trip was accidental, such as the opening of an armed door, and a police or fire response is not needed. See Cancel. Abort reports are sent before the bell cutoff timer expires, whereas cancel reports are sent afterward. DMP includes an “S Message” (S45) for each abort report (or S49 for cancel). Among other companies, these “S Messages” are commonly referred to as an Event Code, although DMP saves time by also provides the area name, zone name, and user name, whereas other event codes don’t typically provide the code definitions and therefore require an operator to look it up in a customer’s area and zone lists.

Abort Report – a report sent by the panel following an alarm report to indicate the alarm has been cancelled by an authorized user and no dispatch is required. DMP panels use this feature to help reduce false alarms.

AC Noise – electric noise of a rapidly alternating or pulsating nature. Can interfere with DMP bus in some cases.

AC Power Supply – a power unit, like a generator, transformer, or inverter, which supplies AC power.

Access – the ability or opportunity to enter an area or to obtain knowledge of certain information.

Access Code – a combination of ID or PIN numbers and door locations related to a defined schedule. These combinations are programmed into an access system to grant or deny access to system users.

Access Control – the control of persons through controlled area or premise entrances and exits.

Access Control Card – a card containing coded information. It is placed in or near a card reader. The card is read and access is granted if the information from the card is valid for that specific time, day and location.

Access Keypads – a programming option that allows door access reports to be sent to a receiver. A report is sent with each door access made from selected keypads. Keypads at addresses not selected still operate the door strike relay but do not send door access reports.

Access Point – a door, gate, or other barrier through which people or vehicles can gain access to a defined area.

Account – a residence or business whose alarm system is maintained or monitored by an alarm company.

Account Number – the number that identifies all reporting systems to the monitoring center. The account number is included along with any reports the panel sends to the receiver.

Acknowledge (ACK) – the confirmation that a message or signal has been received, such as pressing a button or selecting a software command.

Action – a zone programming option that selects the action of any outputs activated by changes in the zone condition. The four action options are:

  • steady
  • pulse (1 second on, 1 second off) – on some DMP wireless LED devices this displays as quick flashes
  • momentary (1 second on for one time only)
  • follow (on when the zone is off normal, off when the zone restores)

Active Star – a network with a multi-port repeater at the center. Each device connects to the repeater. Active stars do not perform network addressing. Network packets seen on one branch of the star are seen on all branches.

Activity Report – a record of openings, closing, alarms and other signals received from a protected premise and maintained by the monitoring center. They may also be generated from DMP products such as RemoteLink, SystemLink, Entré, and Dealer Admin for user and panel events.

Actuator – a manual or automatic switch that initiates an alarm transmission to the monitoring center when activated.

Address (Keypad Bus) — a switch setting on a keypad, zone expander, or other device that reflects its assigned position on a data bus. Zone expanders, for example, are addressed so that the panel is able to associate its onboard zones with their programmed location and characteristics held in memory.

Address (IP) — a sequence of bits used to identify devices on a network. Each network device must have a

unique address. Addresses fall in two categories: physical hardware addresses and logical protocol addresses.

Addressable Device – an alarm system component with discrete identification that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions.

Addressable System Smoke Detector – system smoke detectors that, in addition to providing alarm and trouble indications to a control unit, are capable of communicating a unique identification location address.

Ah – see Ampere-hour.

Air Sampling-Type Detector – a detector that consists of a piping or tubing distribution network from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspiration fan in the detector housing draws air from the protected area back to the detector through air sampling ports, piping, or tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed for fire products.

Alarm – a condition in which one or more armed zones in the system have faulted. Almost all alarms sound

some form of audible device locally, except in the cases of silent, panic, or ambush alarms.

Alarm Bell – a bell or siren installed on the protected premises that gives indication of an alarm condition to persons inside or nearby.

Alarm Circuit – an alarm system electrical circuit that produces or transmits an alarm signal.

Alarm Control – a device that permits an alarm system to be turned on and off and provides electrical power to operate the system. Every alarm system must have an alarm control.

Alarm Indicating Device – an audible or visual signal used to signify an alarm signal, such as a bell or strobe.

Alarm Initiating Device – a device that initiates an alarm when actuated. Such devices, depending on their type, can be operated manually or actuated automatically in response to smoke, flame, heat, or water flow.

Alarm Module – an add-on device to monitor a series of sensors and initiate warning devices if required.

Alarm Panel – the main controlling CPU in the alarm system to which all zones, phone lines and devicesare connected.

Alarm Receiver – a device used to receive alarm events from alarm panels. Receivers are usually locatedand maintained at a monitoring center.

Alarm Signal – 1) an audible or visual signal produced by the alarm panel indicating the existence of analarm condition. The alarm signal may be a bell, siren, or visual device (local alarm), or it may be amessage transmitted to a monitoring center alarm company on leased telephone lines, the Internet, or theswitched network. Every alarm system must have an alarm signal. 2) used to refer to the actual signal sentto an alarm receiver.

Alarm Silence – a keypad menu function that allows authorized users to silence alarm bells or sirens during an alarm condition on the system. Users can also enter their user code and press the command key directly from the status list. This is an exclusive function of DMP panels that allows silencing alarm bells without disarming the system.

Alarm System – a combination of compatible initiating devices, control panels and notification appliances designed and installed to produce an alarm signal in the event of emergencies.

Alarm Verification – 1) a feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein automatic smoke detectors must report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given period of time after being reset, to be accepted as a valid alarm initiation signal. 2) A valid burglar alarm has occurred and been manually verified by the user. The alarm system also transmits a VERIFY message to the monitoring center. DMP panels use this feature to help reduce false alarms.

All/Perimeter – a system arming type that provides for the system to be configured into just two areas: a perimeter and an interior. Exterior doors and windows are assigned to the perimeter, while inside devices such as PIRs and doors are assigned to the interior area.

Alphanumeric – term used to describe a combination of letters and numbers.

Alternating Current (AC) – an electric current that reverses its direction regularly and continually. The voltage alternates its polarity and current flow direction from negative to positive. AC current flows back and forth in the conductor and is expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).

Ambient Temperature – the temperature of the air immediately surrounding a device or object.

Ambush – a silent, invisible alarm signal sent to the monitoring center that indicates a user is being forced to disarm the system. DMP panels use a unique ambush code number to prevent false alarms.

Ambush (Duress) Code – a special code entered to indicate a duress condition that directly threatens the user. The ambush signal is sent when ambush is programmed as YES in the panel and a code for user number one is entered at the keypad. This code does not activate signaling devices at the premises. DMP panels use this feature to help reduce false alarms.

Ambush Output – a panel output that is programmed to activate any time an ambush code is entered at a keypad. The output is turned off through the user menu sensor reset option. This output is used to lock down areas or activate strobes, etc.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a federation of trade, technical, professional organizations, government agencies and consumer groups that coordinates standards development, publishes standards and operates a voluntary certification program. ANSI/SIA CP-01-2000 Control Panel False Alarm Standard.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) – a commonly used coding scheme that uses eight bits of data to encode alphanumeric and special control characters. Common to most computer platforms.

American Wire Gauge (AWG) – the U.S. standard for specifying the diameter of a wire conductor. The larger the number, the smaller the wire.

Ampere (Amp) – the unit of measurement for the rate of electrical current flow, characterized by the symbols I (in Ohm’s law formulas) or A. One Ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.

Ampere-hour (Ah) – a measurement of a battery capacity. One Ampere of current flowing for one hour equals one Ampere-hour.

Amplitude – the magnitude of an electrical signal. Measured by subtracting an electrical signal minimum voltage from its maximum voltage.

Analog – a method of data transmission where the data is continually modulated to represent transmitted information.

Analog System Smoke or Heat Detectors – a system detector that returns many levels of information to the control panel. Alarm decisions are made by the panel, not the detector.

Annunciator – a keypad or other lighted or audible display at the protected premise that indicates system, zones and armed status conditions.

Anti-passback – a programming option that requires a user to properly exit (egress) an area they have previously accessed. If they fail to exit through the proper card reader location they are not granted access on their next attempt. Also, see Egress.

Any Bypass – a panel programming feature that allows low level users to bypass zones during the arming sequence without having to enter a higher level user code.

Area – part of a protected premise, such as the front office, that is programmed to operate separately from the other parts of the premises. Areas can have their own keypads, zones, account numbers, and arming and disarming schedules.

Area Arming – a panel operation mode that provides for one or more individual areas to be individually armed and disarmed.

Area Schedules – a programming option that allows the user to assign an individual schedule to each area within the system. This allows each area to open and close on independent schedules. When area schedules are turned off, all areas follow the same schedule.

Arm – to turn on the protection in a protected premises.

Armed – a condition in which one or more areas can be placed. When an area is armed, a change in the state of zones in the area causes the panel to activate an alarm. Fire, panic, and other 24-hour zones are considered always armed.

Armed Output – a programming option that allows an output to activate when an area arms.

Armed Rings – the number of rings the panel counts before answering the phone line when all system areas are armed.

Arming Zone (AR) – a DMP zone type that allows the user to use keyswitches to arm and disarm areas within a system. This is done by entering the area number(s) to be controlled into the arming zone programming area section.

Arrow Key – see Back Arrow Key.

Asynchronous Communication – a data transmission mode that transmits individual characters or bytes, one at a time, along with individual start and stop bits.

Audible Alarm Device – a noisemaking device such as a siren, bell, or horn, used to indicate a local alarm.

Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) – the organization, office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, an installation, or a procedure. The AHJ may be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or individual, such as a fire chief, fire marshal, chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor department, health department, building official, electrical inspector, or others having statutory authority. For insurance purposes, the AHJ may be an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, or other insurance company representative.

Authority Level – a level of access to the system and its functions that is assigned to each user code or user profile. Each area must have at least one user with a Master authority in order to be able to add, change, or delete other users.

Auto Arm – to automatically turn on the burglary protection in one or more areas through the use of schedules. These schedules allow the user to set the time of day for the arming to occur. If using the automatic arming feature along with the closing check (see Closing Check), the arming does not take place until the expiration of a 10-minute closing check delay. If the area is disarmed outside of any schedule, the closing check sequence occurs one hour after the area is disarmed. At arming, faulted zones are handled according to the bypass option selected. If a closing report is sent to the monitoring center, the user number is indicated as SCH (for schedule) on the receiver.

Auto Disarm – to automatically turn off the burglary protection in one or more areas through the use of schedules. These schedules allow the user to set the time of day for the disarming to occur. If an opening report is sent to the monitoring center at disarming, the user number is indicated as SCH (for schedule) on the receiver.

Automatic Fire Alarm System – a system of controls, initiating devices and alarm signals in which all or some of the initiating circuits are activated by automatic devices such as smoke detectors. Refers to fire alarm systems that electronically detect smoke or abrupt temperature changes associated with a developing fire. Early detection and reporting to a monitoring center allow fire authorities to respond quickly and minimize damage.

Automatic Recall Test – a signal generated by the panel that is sent to the monitoring center. This signal indicates that the panel communicator is working properly and is able to send signals to the monitoring center receiver.

Automation Software – monitoring center software that receives signals from an alarm receiver and displays alarms on a display screen to allow the proper authorities to be dispatched.

Auxiliary Fire Alarm System – a connection to the municipal fire alarm system to transmit a fire alarm to the municipal communications center. Fire alarms from an auxiliary alarm system are received at the municipal communications center on the same equipment and by the same alerting methods as alarms transmitted by municipal fire alarm boxes located on streets.

Auxiliary Zone (A1, A2) – zone type(s) similar to a Night zone typically used to protect restricted areas within a protected premises.

Average Ambient Sound Level – sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period.

Away – a panel arming option in which all areas of the system are armed. This option is for when the user leaves the premises and no person is left inside.

Universal Grammar & Writing Rules

For additional information not listed here, see the A.P. stylebook located in Marketing.

Formatting Grammar & Language Punctuation


Grammar & Language

Passive voice occurs when the object of the action in the sentence becomes the subject of the sentence.

The ball was thrown by James.

Writing in passive voice can be confusing and lacks responsibility. Therefore, whenever possible, construct sentences using the active voice in which the subject performs the action:

James threw the ball.

Here’s an easy exercise to help you identify and bypass passive voice: Insert the phrase “by zombies” after the verb in each of the sentences below. If the sentence still makes sense, try to modify.

  • These documents were processed by zombies.
  • Each panel was tested by zombies.
  • New alarms were tripped by zombies.

In the modified statements below, it’s easy to tell who did what.

  • Inside Sales processed these documents.
  • Installers tested each panel before leaving the customer’s premises.
  • Engineering tripped the new alarms to check for abnormalities.

Exceptions to the Rule

There are some instances in which the passive voice is a better option. For example: Incidents of inappropriate behavior were reported. In this case, the focus of the sentence should be on the incidents, not on the people who reported them. In fact, there are situations in which the subject of the sentence might be unknown or unimportant. In those cases, sometimes using passive voice is preferable to using “someone” as the subject.

Don’t forget to check your writing to make sure pronouns agree in gender, number, and person with its antecedent.

What’s an antecedent?

It’s a word for which a pronoun stands. Example: Jill purchased an airline ticket, and now she can’t find it. “Jill” is the antecedent for “she,” and “airline ticket” is the antecedent for “it.”

Gender refers to whether a pronoun or noun is masculine, feminine, or neutral.

  • Example 1: Each passenger is responsible for getting his or her passport. (Each passenger is a singular genderless antecedent, so the singular pronoun his or her is correct.)
  • Example 2: The university has changed its recommendations for the new parking lot facility. (University is a singular gender-neutral antecedent, so the singular neuter pronoun its is used.)

Number refers to whether a pronoun or noun is singular or plural.

These antecedents require singular pronouns:

  • anybody, anyone, each, everybody, everyone, somebody, and someone.

When you use a singular indefinite pronoun, make sure the antecedent agrees. Examples:

  • Incorrect: Anyone can pick up their application at the job placement center.
  • Correct: Anyone can pick up his or her application at the job placement center.
  • To avoid using his/her, change to a plural pronoun: All individuals can pick up their applications at the job placement center.

Person refers to the point of view from which a sentence is written

  • First person (the person writing, i.e. “I,” “we,” “our”)
  • Second person (the person written to, i.e. “you,” “your”)
  • Third person (the person written about, i.e. “DMP,” “dealers”, “people”).

Examples:

  • Incorrect: When a person turns 30, your perspective on life changes in many ways. (The first half of the sentence is written in third person, while the second half is written in second person.)
  • Correct: When a person turns thirty, his or her perspective on life changes in many ways. (The entire sentence is written in third person.)

To draw in your readers and hold their interest, look for opportunities to make your writing more conversational. For instance, depending on the context of course, it can be better to refer to your reader as “you” (second person) rather than “customers” or “dealers” (third person).

General Guidelines

Proper Names with Common Nouns - such as party, river, street, and west only when they’re used as a part of the full name. Examples: Republican Party, Missouri River, Cherry Street, West Memphis.

Lowercase these common nouns when they stand alone in subsequent references: the party, the river, the street.

Proper Nouns – a specific person, place or thing. The Internet, XYZ Central Station. However, common nouns are not capitalized. Example: We contacted the central station. We’re sending a notice to dealers today.

Titles of People and Terms Within Text – Capitalize a person’s title only when it’s used directly before the name. Example: President & CEO Rick Britton. Rick Britton is president and CEO of DMP.

DMP Guidelines

Cellular/Network - Only capitalize these when used as a product name. Example: The 265C CDMA Cellular Communicators. Otherwise, cellular and network are simply modifiers of the noun communicator, and should not be capitalized.

Department Titles - Capitalize when specifying a specific department. Example: Marketing Department. However, lowercase department in plural uses. The Marketing and Field Technical Training departments.

Email Addresses - Capitalize the first letter of the recipient’s first and last names and always capitalize DMP. JSmith@DMP.com.

Headlines/Email Subject Lines - Always use title case.

  • Capitalize all nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns, regardless of the length of the word.
  • Capitalize prepositions of four or more letters (over, from, and with).
  • Capitalize conjunctions of four or more letters (unless and than), as well as if, how, and why.

Do not capitalize:

  • Articles (a, an, and the)
  • Prepositions of three or fewer letters (of, in, and for)
  • Most conjunctions of three or fewer letters (as, and, or, and but)

When to Capitalize Hyphenated Compounds in Titles – If a hyphenated compound appears in title-style capitalization, capitalize the first word and capitalize all subsequent words in the compound except for articles (a, an, and the), prepositions of three or fewer letters (to and of), and coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so). Ask yourself: If this word weren’t in a hyphenated compound, would I capitalize it? If the answer is yes, capitalize it as part of the hyphenated compound, too.

Additional Tip: Verbs (even short ones like is, be, and do) should always be capitalized. No matter how short, pronouns such as he, she, it, me, and you should be capitalized. Capitalize both parts of phrasal verbs, multi-word verbs that include adverbs such as up, in and out. For example, built in, tune in and hold on). Phrasal verbs don’t include the infinitive to form of a verb (to be, to run)—so lowercase the word to in such a verb.

Examples

  • Author of How-to Book on Bee-Keeping Prone to Anaphylaxis
  • Governor Slams E-Book About Her Re-Election Campaign
  • Consumers Prefer Eco-Friendly and Cheap Products
  • Two-Thirds Vote Needed to Fund Research Into Blue-Green Algae Biofuel
  • Profits Double on Word-of-Mouth Sales
  • Audiences Love His Man-About-Town Sophistication
  • Open Your Own eBay-Based Boutique

Menus - When it includes a specific kind, such as the Device Setup Menu.

Products or features that are registered or trademarked (™ or ©), such as EASYconnect™.

Series - when naming specific panels such as XR100/XR500 Series. For general references, series is not capitalized.

Use ALL CAPS if what you see on the keypad or other product is all caps. CMD, EMERGENCY, ….

Focus on the Second Person Point of View

Engage your readers by speaking directly to them. Construct your sentences to emphasize “you,” “your,” and “yours” to reinforce their perspective, then follow with a response in either first (“I” or “we”) or third person (“DMP”) point of view.

Avoid citing information in a way that can appear negative or disadvantageous.

Example: The XR10 does not support zone expansion on the keypad bus. Rewrite this information to emphasize the positive. You can connect up to four keypads on the keypad bus.

Though it is not recommended to use negative statements, ensure honesty and accuracy in every document, sentence, and word you write.

All items in a list should be parallel in grammatical form. Avoid mixing phrases and sentences (independent clauses).

Incorrect Examples:

  • We will discuss the following at the department meeting: Entering mileage in logs (phrase)
  • All employees have to enroll in a training seminar. (sentence) Purpose of quarterly reviews (phrase)
  • Some data processors will travel to job sites. (sentence)

Corrected:

  • We will discuss the following at the department meeting: Entering mileage in logs (phrase)
  • Enrolling in training seminars (phrase) Reviewing employee performance (phrase)
  • Traveling to job sites (phrase)

If a sentence contains two subjects connected by and, naturally you’d know to use a plural verb. But please take note of this rule:

If a sentence has two subjects connected by either …or, neither…nor, or not only … but also, the verb should agree with the closest subject. This also makes the sentence less awkward.

Examples:

Either the salespeople or the warehouse worker deserves raises. Not only the warehouse but also the salespeople deserve raises.


Punctuation & Formatting

Plural Nouns Not Ending in S: Add ’s: salesmen’s goals, people’s systems.

Plural Nouns Ending in S: Add only an apostrophe: the churches’ needs, companies’ plan, states’ rights, the VIPs’ entrance.

Nouns Plural in Form, Singular in Meaning: Add only an apostrophe: mathematics’ rules, head- quarters’ hallways.

Nouns the Same in Singular and Plural: Treat them the same as plurals, even if the meaning is singular:

the United States’ UL listing, pliers’ handle, the two deer’s tracks.

Singular Nouns Not Ending in S: Add ’s: the church’s needs, the company’s mission statement, the VIP’s seat.

Note: Even with singular nouns ending in s sounds such as ce, x, and z, always use ’s if the word does not end in the letter s: Cox’s health plan, the fox’s den, the justice’s verdict, Xerox’s profits.

Singular Common Nouns Ending in S: Add ’s unless the next word begins with s: the hostess’s invitation, the hostess’ seat; the witness’s answer, the witness’ story.

Singular Proper Names Ending in S: Use only an apostrophe: Achilles’ heel, Dickens’ novels, Jesus’ life, Kansas’ regulations, Moses’ law.

Special Expressions: The following exceptions to the general rule for words not ending in s apply to words that end in an s sound and are followed by a word that begins with s: for appearance’ sake, for conscience’ sake, for goodness’ sake. Use ’ otherwise: my conscience’s voice.

Pronouns: These have separate forms for the possessive and do not include an apostrophe: mine, ours, your, yours, his, hers, its, theirs, whose.

Caution: If you’re using an apostrophe with a pronoun, be sure the meaning calls for a contraction (an abbreviated version of a word/words): you’re, who’s (instead of you are or who is). Follow the rules listed above in forming the possessives of other pronouns: another’s idea, others’ plans, someone’s guess.

Compound Words: Applying the rules above, add an apostrophe or ’s to the word closest to the object possessed: the attorney general’s request, the attorneys general’s request. See the plurals entry for guidelines on forming the plurals of these words. Also: anyone else’s attitude, Dale Earnhardt Jr.’s father, John Fisher of New York’s suggestion. Whenever practical, however, recast the phrase to avoid ambiguity: the suggestion by John Fisher of New York.

Joint Possession, Individual Possession: Use a possessive form after only the last word if ownership is joint: Fred and Sylvia’s apartment, Fred and Sylvia’s stocks. Use a possessive form after both words if the objects are individually owned: Fred’s and Sylvia’s books.

Descriptive Phrases: Do not add an apostrophe to a word ending in s when it is used primarily in a descriptive sense: citizens band radio, a Cincinnati Reds infielder, a teachers college, a Teamsters request, a writers guide.

Memory aid: The apostrophe usually is not used if “for” or “by” rather than “of” would be appropriate in the longer form: a radio band for citizens, a college for teachers, a guide for writers, a request by the Teamsters.

An ’s is required however, when a term involves a plural word that does not end in s: a children’s hospital, a people’s republic, the Young Men’s Christian Association.

Descriptive Names: Some governmental, corporate and institutional organizations with a descriptive word in their names use an apostrophe; some do not. Follow the user’s practice: Diners Club, the National Governors Association.

Quasi Possessives: Follow the rules above in composing the possessive form of words that occur in such phrases as a day’s pay, two weeks’ vacation, three days’ work, your money’s worth. Frequently, however, a hyphenated form is clearer: a two-week vacation, a three-day job.

Double Possessive: Two conditions must apply for a double possessive – a phrase such as a friend of John’s – to occur: 1. The word after of must refer to an animate or living object, and 2. The word before of must involve only a portion of the animate object’s possessions. Otherwise, do not use the possessive form of the word after of: The friends of John Adams mourned his death. (All the friends were involved.) He is a friend of the college. (Not college’s, because college is inanimate).

Memory aid: This construction occurs most often, and quite naturally, with the possessive forms of personal pronouns: He is a friend of mine.

Inanimate Objects: There is no blanket rule against creating a possessive form for an inanimate object, particularly if the object is treated in a personified sense. Death’s call, the wind’s murmur. In general, however, avoid excessive personalization of inanimate objects, and give preference to an “of” construction when it fits the makeup of the sentence. For example, the earlier references to mathematics’ rules and measles’ effects would better be phrased: the rules of mathematics, the effects of measles.

Omitted Letters: I’ve, it’s, don’t, rock ‘n’ roll, ‘tis the season. He is a ne’er-do-well.

Omitted Figures: Class of ’17. The ‘80s.

Plurals of a Single Letter: Mind your p’s and q’s. He learned the three R’s and brought home a report card with four A’s and two B’s. The Oakland A’s won the pennant.

Do Not Use: For plurals of numerals or multiple-letter combinations: She knows her ABCs. Temperatures will be in the low 20s.

The most frequent use of a colon is at the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc.

Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. He promised this: The company will always be phil- anthropic. But: There were three considerations: expense, time and feasibility.

Emphasis: The colon often can be effective in giving emphasis. He had only one hobby: fishing.

Listings: Use the colon in such listings as time elapsed (1:31:07.2), time of day (8:31 p.m.), biblical and legal citations .

Dialogue: Use a colon for Q&A dialogue. Q: Did you hire him? A: Indeed I did.

Introducing Quotations: Use a comma to introduce a direct quotation of one sentence that remains within a paragraph. Use a colon to introduce long quotations within a paragraph and to end all paragraphs that introduce a paragraph of quoted material.

Placement with Quotation Marks: Colons go outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quotation itself.

The following guidelines treat some of the most frequent questions about the use of commas. Remember, our over-arching principle is that less punctuation is better. However, if a comma is needed for clarity and accuracy, use one. If not, don’t.

In a Series: Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in most simple series: The flag is red, white and blue. He would nominate Mark, Daniel, Hannah or Jon.

However, include a final comma in a simple series if omitting it could make the meaning unclear. The governor convened his most trusted advisers, economist Olivia Schneider and polling expert Carlton Torres. (If Schneider and Torres are his most trusted advisers, don’t use the final comma.) The governor convened his most trusted advisers, economist Olivia Schneider, and polling expert Carlton Torres. (If the governor is convening unidentified advisers plus Schneider and Torres, the final comma is needed.)

With Equal Adjectives: Use commas to separate a series of adjectives equal in rank. If the commas could be replaced by the word and without changing the sense, the adjectives are equal: a thoughtful, precise manner; a dark, dangerous street.

Use no comma when the last adjective before a noun outranks its predecessors because it is an integral element of a noun phrase, which is the equivalent of a single noun: a cheap fur coat (the noun phrase is fur coat).

With Essential & Nonessential Clauses: An essential clause cannot be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. Therefore, do not set it off with commas from the rest of the sentence. Reporters who do not read the Stylebook should not criticize their editors. (In other words, only one class of reporters, those who do not read the Stylebook, should not criticize their editors).

On the other hand, nonessential clause can be eliminated without altering the basic meaning of the sentence. Therefore, set it off with commas. My uncle, who is 80 years old, walked three miles.

With Introductory Clauses & Phrases: A comma is used to separate an introductory clause or phrase from the main clause. When he got tired of the mad pace of New York, he moved to Dubuque. The comma may be omitted after short introductory phrases if no ambiguity would result: During the night he heard many noises. But use the comma if its omission would slow comprehension: On the street below, the curious gathered.

With Conjunctions: When a conjunction such as and, but or for links two clauses that could stand alone as separate sentences, use a comma before the conjunction in most cases: She was glad she had looked, for a man was approaching the house.

As a rule of thumb, use a comma if the subject of each clause is expressly stated: We are visiting Washington, and we also plan a side trip to Williamsburg. But no comma when the subject of the two clauses is the same and is not repeated in the second: We are visiting Washington and plan to see the White House.

Introducing Direct Quotes: Use a comma to introduce a complete one-sentence quotation within a paragraph: Wallace said, “She spent six months in Argentina and came back speaking English with a Spanish accent.” But use a colon to introduce quotations of more than one sentence. See colon. Do not use a comma at the start of an indirect or partial quotation: He said the victory put him ‘’firmly on the road to a first-ballot nomination.”

Before Attribution: Use a comma instead of a period at the end of a quote that is followed by attribution: “Rub my shoulders,” she suggested. Do not use a comma, however, if the quoted statement ends with a question mark or exclamation point: “Why should I?” he asked.

With Hometowns & Ages: Use a comma to set off an individual’s hometown when it is placed in apposition to a name (whether of is used or not): Mary Richards, Minneapolis, and Maude Findlay, Tuckahoe, New York, were there. If an individual’s age is used, set it off by commas: Maude Findlay, 48, Tuckahoe, New York, was present.

Names of States & Nations Used with City Names: His journey will take him from Dublin, Ireland, to Fargo, North Dakota, and back. The Selma, Alabama, group saw the governor. Use parentheses, however, if a state name is inserted within a proper name: The Huntsville (Alabama) Times.

With Yes & No: Yes, I will be there.

In Direct Address: Mother, I will be home late. No, sir, I did not take it.

In Large Figures: Use a comma for most figures greater than 999. The major exceptions are street addresses , broadcast frequencies (_1460 kilohertz), room numbers, serial numbers, telephone numbers, and years (1876). Also see the DMP Technical Guide (LINK TO ADD).

Placement with Quotes: Commas always go inside quotation marks.

With Full Dates: When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with a comma: Feb. 14, 2018, is the target date.


Abrupt Change: Use dashes to denote an abrupt change in thought in a sentence or an emphatic pause: Through her long reign, the queen and her family have adapted usually skillfully to the changing times. But avoid overuse of dashes to set off phrases when commas would suffice.

Series Within a Phrase: When a phrase that otherwise would be set off by commas contains a series of words that must be separated by commas, use dashes to set off the full phrase. He listed the qualities — intelligence, humor, conservatism, independence that he liked in an executive.

Attribution: Use a dash before an author’s or composer’s name at the end of a quotation: “Who steals my purse steals trash.” —Shakespeare.

With Spaces: Put a space on both sides of a dash in all uses except the start of a paragraph.

In general, treat an ellipsis as a three-letter word, constructed with three periods and two spaces. Follow these guidelines:

Use an ellipsis to indicate the deletion of one or more words in condensing quotes, texts, and documents. Be especially careful to avoid deletions that would distort the meaning. An ellipsis also may be used to indicate a thought that the speaker or writer does not complete. Substitute a dash for this purpose, however, if the context uses ellipses to indicate that words actually spoken or written have been deleted.

Punctuation Guidelines: If the words that precede an ellipsis constitute a grammatically complete sentence, either in the original or in the condensation, place a period at the end of the last word before the ellipsis. Follow it with a regular space and an ellipsis: I no longer have a strong enough political base. When the grammatical sense calls for a question mark, exclamation point, comma or colon, the sequence is word, punctuation mark, regular space, ellipsis: Will you come?

When material is deleted at the end of one paragraph and at the beginning of the one that follows, place an ellipsis in both locations.

Condensation Example: Here is an example of how the spacing and punctuation guidelines would be applied in condensing President Richard Nixon’s resignation announcement:

Good evening .

In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the nation .

However, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base in … Congress.

As long as there was a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion, that to do otherwise would be a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future.

Quotations: In writing a story, do not use ellipses at the beginning and end of direct quotes: “It has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base,” Nixon said. Not it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base ,” Nixon said.

Emphatic Expressions: Use the mark to express a high degree of surprise, amazement or other strong emotion.

Avoid Overuse: Use a comma after mild interjections. End mildly exclamatory sentences with a period.

Placement with Quotes: Place the mark inside quotation marks when it is part of the quoted material: “How wonderful!” he exclaimed.

Place the mark outside quotation marks when it is not part of the quoted material: I hated reading Spenser’s “Faerie Queene”!

Miscellaneous: Do not use a comma or a period after the exclamation mark: Wrong: “Halt!”, the corporal cried. Right: “Halt!” the corporal cried.

Hyphens are joiners. Use them to avoid ambiguity or to form a single idea from two or more words.

Use of the hyphen is far from standardized. It is optional in most cases, a matter of taste, judgment, and style sense. But the fewer hyphens the better; use them only when not using them causes confusion: small- business owner. For a specific word, refer to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary. Some guidelines:

Avoid Ambiguity: Use a hyphen whenever ambiguity would result if it were omitted: The president will speak to small-business men. (Businessmen normally is one word. But the president will speak to small businessmen is unclear.) He re-covered the leaky roof.

Compound Modifiers: When a compound modifier – two or more words that express a single concept – precedes a noun, use hyphens to link all the words in the compound except the adverb very and all adverbs that end in ly: a first-quarter touchdown, a bluish-green dress, a full-time job, a well-known man, a better- qualified woman, a know-it-all attitude, a very good time, an easily remembered rule. Many combinations that are hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated when they occur after a noun: The team scored in the first quarter. The dress, a bluish green, was attractive on her. She works full time. His attitude suggested that he knew it all.

But when a modifier that would be hyphenated before a noun occurs instead after a form of the verb to be, the hyphen usually must be retained to avoid confusion: The man is well-known. The woman is quick-witted. The children are soft-spoken. The play is second-rate.

The principle of using a hyphen to avoid confusion explains why no hyphen is required with very and ly words. Readers can expect them to modify the word that follows. But if a combination such as little-known man were not hyphenated, the reader could logically be expecting little to be followed by a noun, as in little man. Instead, the reader encountering little known would have to back up mentally and make the compound connection on his own.

Compound Proper Nouns and Adjectives: Use a hyphen to designate dual heritage: Italian-American, Mexican-American. No hyphen, however, for French Canadian or Latin American.

Avoid Duplicated Vowels, Tripled Consonants: Examples: anti-intellectual, pre-empt, shell-like.

With Numerals: Use a hyphen to separate figures in odds, ratios, scores, some fractions and some vote tabulations. When large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in -y to another word: twenty-one, fifty-five, etc.

Suspensive Hyphenation: The form: He received a 10- to 20-year sentence in prison.

Be sparing with parentheses as they are jarring to the reader.

The temptation to use parentheses is a clue that a sentence is becoming contorted. Try to write it another way. If a sentence must contain incidental material, then commas or two dashes are frequently more effective. Use these alternatives whenever possible.

There are occasions, however, when parentheses are the only effective means of inserting necessary background or reference information. When they are necessary, follow these guidelines:

Punctuation: Place a period outside a closing parenthesis if the material inside is not a sentence . _(An independent parenthetical sentence such as this one takes a period before the closing parenthesis.) When a phrase placed in parentheses (this one is an example) might normally qualify as a complete sentence but is dependent on the surrounding material, do not capitalize the first word or end with a period.

Insertions in a Proper Name: Use parentheses if a state name or similar information is inserted within a proper name: The Huntsville (Alabama) Times. But use commas if no proper name is involved: The Selma, Alabama, group saw the governor.

End of Declarative Sentence: The stylebook is finished.

End of a Mildly Imperative Sentence: Shut the door. Use an exclamation point if greater emphasis is desired: Be careful!

End of Some Rhetorical Questions: A period is preferable if a statement is more a suggestion than a question: Why don’t we go.

End of an Indirect Question: He asked what the score was.

Many Abbreviations: Initials: John F. Kennedy, T.S. Eliot (No space between T. and S. but abbreviations using only the initials of a name do not take periods: JFK, LBJ.

Placement with Quotation Marks: Periods always go inside quotation marks. See Quotation Marks. Spacing: Use a single space after a period at the end of a sentence.

End of a Direct Questions: Who started the company? Did he ask who started the company? (The sentence as a whole is a direct question despite the indirect question at the end.) You started the company? (A question in the form of a declarative statement.)

Multiple Questions: Use a single question mark at the end of the full sentence: Did you hear him say, “What right have you to ask about the benefits?” Did he write the sales campaign, employ assistants, and give the signal to begin?

Or, to cause full stops and throw emphasis on each element, break into separate sentences: Did he plan the sales campaign? Employ assistants? Give the signal to begin?

Caution: Do not use question marks to indicate the end of indirect questions: He asked who started the company. I want to know what the cause of the riot was.

Question-and-Answer Format: Do not use quotation marks. Paragraph each speaker’s words:

Q: Where did you keep it?

A: In a little tin box.

Placement with Quotation Marks: Inside or outside, depending on the meaning: Who wrote “Gone With the Wind”? He asked, “How long will it take?”

Miscellaneous: The question mark supersedes the comma that normally is used when supplying attribution for a quotation: “Who is there?” she asked.

The basic guidelines for open-quote marks (“) and close-quote marks (”):

For Direct Quotations: To surround the exact words of a speaker or writer when reported in a story: “I have no intention of staying,” he replied. “I do not object,” he said, “to the tenor of the report.” Franklin said, “A penny saved is a penny earned.” A speculator said the practice is “too conservative for inflationary times.”

Running Quotations: If a full paragraph of quoted material is followed by a paragraph that continues the quotation, do not put close-quote marks at the end of the first paragraph. Do, however, put open-quote marks at the start of the second paragraph. Continue in this fashion for any succeeding paragraphs, using close-quote marks only at the end of the quoted material.

If a paragraph does not start with quotation marks but ends with a quotation that is continued in the next paragraph, do not use close-quote marks at the end of the introductory paragraph if the quoted material constitutes a full sentence. Use close-quote marks, however, if the quoted material does not constitute a full sentence. For example: He said, “I am shocked and horrified by the incident.

“I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.” But: He said he was “shocked and horrified by the incident.”

“I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty,” he said.

Dialogue or Conversation: Each person’s words, no matter how brief, are placed in a separate paragraph, with quotation marks at the beginning and the end of each person’s speech:

“Will you go?” ‘’Yes.”

‘’When?” “Thursday.”

Not in Q-And-A: Quotation marks aren’t required in formats that identify questions and answers by Q: and A:. See Question Mark for example.

Not in Texts: Quotation marks are not required in full texts, condensed texts or textual excerpts. See

Ellipsis.

Partial Quotes: When a partial quote is used, do not put quotation marks around words that the speaker could not have used. Suppose the individual said, “I am horrified at your slovenly manners.” Wrong: She said she “was horrified at their slovenly manners.” Right: She said she was horrified at their “slovenly manners.” Better when practical: Use the full quote.

Quotes Within Quotes: Alternate be-tween double quotation marks (“or’’) and single marks (‘or’): She said, “I quote from his letter, ‘I agree with Kipling that “the female of the species is more deadly than the male,” but the phenomenon is not an unchangeable law of nature,’ a remark he did not explain.” Use three marks together if two quoted elements end at the same time: She said, “He told me, ‘I love you.”’

Placement with Other Punctuation: Follow these long-established printers’ rules:

  • The period and the comma always go within the quotation marks.
  • The dash, the semicolon, the question mark and the exclamation point go within the quotation marks when they apply to the quoted matter only. They go outside when they apply to the whole sentence. See Comma.

In general, use the semicolon to indicate a greater separation of thought and information than a comma can convey but less than the separation that a period implies. The basic guidelines:

To Clarify a Series: Use semicolons to separate elements of a series when the items in the series are long or when individual segments contain material that also must be set off by commas: He is survived by a son, John Smith, of Chicago; three daughters, Jane Smith, of Wichita, Kansas, Mary Smith, of Denver, and Susan, of Boston; and a sister, Martha, of Omaha, Nebraska. Note that the semicolon is used before the final and in such a series. See Dash for a different type of connection that uses dashes to avoid multiple commas.

To Link Independent Clauses: Use semicolon when a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or for is not present: The package was due last week; it arrived today. If a coordinating conjunction is present, use a semicolon before it only if extensive punctuation also is required in one or more of the individual clauses: They pulled their boats from the water, sandbagged the retaining walls, and boarded up the windows; but even with these precautions, the island was hard-hit by the hurricane. Unless a particular literary effect is desired, however, the better approach in these circum- stances is to break the independent clauses into separate sentences.

Placement with Quotes: Place semicolons outside quotation marks.

Following are the state abbreviations when included in datelines, captions, lists, and tabular material. Note: the postal code abbreviations are in parentheses:

Ala. (AL)

Md. (MD)

N.D. (ND)

Ariz. (AZ)

Mass. (MA)

Okla. (OK)

Ark. (AR)

Mich. (MI)

Ore. (OR)

Calif. (CA)

Minn. (MN)

Pa. (PA)

Colo. (CO)

Miss. (MS)

R.I. (RI)

Conn. (CT)

Mo. (MO)

S.C. (SC)

Del. (DE)

Mont. (MT)

S.D. (SD)

Fla. (FL)

Neb. (NE)

Tenn. (TN)

Ga. (GA)

Nev. (NV)

Vt. (VT)

Ill. (IL)

N.H. (NH)

Va. (VA)

Ind. (IN)

N.J. (NJ)

Wash. (WA)

Kan. (KS)

N.M. (NM)

W.Va. (WV)

Ky. (KY)

N.Y. (NY)

Wis. (WI)

La. (LA)

N.C. (NC)

Wyo. (WY)

When using a state name in the context of a running paragraph, spell it out, following these punctuation guidelines:

Place one comma between the city and the state name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence. He was traveling from Memphis, Tennessee, to Springfield, Missouri, en route to his home in Kansas City, Kansas.

State punctuation with addresses – please refer to the Addresses tab in the Numbers section.


If you have a question that isn’t outlined here, please feel free to refer to the printed edition of the AP Stylebook in the Marketing Department or contact:

Marketing & Technical Writers

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Madelynn Innes Copywriter
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Daniel Ketcher
Daniel Ketcher Technical Writer
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Formatting

Following are the state abbreviations when included in datelines, captions, lists, and tabular material. Note: the postal code abbreviations are in parentheses:

Ala. (AL)

Md. (MD)

N.D. (ND)

Ariz. (AZ)

Mass. (MA)

Okla. (OK)

Ark. (AR)

Mich. (MI)

Ore. (OR)

Calif. (CA)

Minn. (MN)

Pa. (PA)

Colo. (CO)

Miss. (MS)

R.I. (RI)

Conn. (CT)

Mo. (MO)

S.C. (SC)

Del. (DE)

Mont. (MT)

S.D. (SD)

Fla. (FL)

Neb. (NE)

Tenn. (TN)

Ga. (GA)

Nev. (NV)

Vt. (VT)

Ill. (IL)

N.H. (NH)

Va. (VA)

Ind. (IN)

N.J. (NJ)

Wash. (WA)

Kan. (KS)

N.M. (NM)

W.Va. (WV)

Ky. (KY)

N.Y. (NY)

Wis. (WI)

La. (LA)

N.C. (NC)

Wyo. (WY)

When using a state name in the context of a running paragraph, spell it out, following these punctuation guidelines:

Place one comma between the city and the state name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence. He was traveling from Memphis, Tennessee, to Springfield, Missouri, en route to his home in Kansas City, Kansas.

State punctuation with addresses – please refer to the Addresses tab in the Numbers section.